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By Charles Rhodes, P.Eng., Ph.D.


1. All levels of government must act to eliminate the combustion of fossil fuels, regardless of the perceived cost and economic consequences. In applications where use of carbon is essential biocarbon should be used. This change in priorities is difficult for many people to accept, particularly those that are opposed to nuclear power, higher electricity costs and higher transportation and heating fuel costs.

2. All new buildings and new electricity generation plants should be designed to operate without fossil fuels.

3. All levels of government must accept the reality that non-fossil fuel energy costs much more than fossil fuel energy before fossil carbon tax, but that non-fossil fuel energy is essential for Canada and Ontario to survive the emerging crisis of global warming.

4. In order to encourage the development of additional non-fossil fuel electricity generation the price of on-peak electricity must be increased.

5. The price of electricity must be based on the cost of meeting the peak load kVA with non-fossil electricity. As long as fossil fuels are used to minimize the end user cost of electricity it is impossible to attract sufficient private investment in non-fossil fuel electricity generation and energy storage to displace fossil fuel electricity generation.

6. The Canadian government should implement a fossil carbon tax that is sufficiently high that it does not make financial sense to use fossil carbon as a fuel for supply of primary energy. It is reasonably estimated that this tax must be about $200 / emitted fossil CO2 tonne.

7. Part of the fossil carbon tax revenue should go to parties that produce biocarbon and methanol. Biocarbon is the solid carbon rich material that remains after pyrolysis (heating in absence of oxygen) of biomatter. Pyrolysis drives off the water component of plant carbohydrate. Methanol results from distillation of carbohydrate in a hydrogen atmosphere.

8. Implementation of a fossil carbon tax requires political will. In democratic countries every voter must be taught the extent of the carbon dioxide related problems and the available solutions because these solutions have a price and the voters must be sufficiently educated to elect politicians who will choose to pay that price in order to preserve the world for the voters' children and grand children. Politicians that fail to promptly implement a fossil carbon tax or other measures required to prevent combustion of fossil carbon for primary energy generation must be voted out of office.

9. In the absence of a federal fossil carbon tax, fossil fuels must be taxed by the provinces.

10. Provincial government policies that use kWhe as a performance metric are wrong. The proper performance metrics are peak kVA and fossil fuel consumption. The target should be zero fossil fuel consumption and minimum peak kVA. This target is not consistent with minimum kWhe consumption.

11. The Canadian people must collectively agree that international expectations must be tempered. Much of the world wants to emulate Canada and the USA, which have very high per capita consumptions of fossil fuel. The oceans simply do not have the carbon dioxide absorption capacity required to allow the people of other nations to use fossil fuels to attain the same life style that the people of Canada and the USA presently enjoy. The problem is that the combined population of the other nations is about 19 times the combined population of Canada and the USA. The only way for Canada and the USA to temper these expectations is to set an example by ceasing their own use of fossil carbon for primary energy generation.

12. The federal and provincial governments must promote a culture of fossil carbon consumption reduction by removing all government financial subsidies and incentives relating to fossil carbon extraction and distribution.

13. The federal and provincial governments must support development in the nuclear industry, particularly for liquid sodium cooled Fast Neutron Reactors (FNRs) that have the potential to greatly reduce production of long lived radioactive waste.

14. The only way for Ontario to preserve its present standard of living while ceasing fossil fuel consumption is to implement non-fossil fuel: transportation, heating and electricity generation systems. These systems should be based primarily on wind power, hydro power, nuclear power and solar power. A major expansion of agricultural and forest production will be required to produce feedstocks for production of synthetic liquid hydrocarbons. Expansion and electrification of the rail network will be required to shift people and cargo from airplanes, cars and trucks to trains.

15. Sufficient non-fossil fuel electricity must be generated to completely displace existing fossil fueled electricity generation, fossil fueled transportation and fossil fueled general purpose heating. The amount of electricity required for space heating can be mitigated through the use of nuclear district heating and heat pumps.

16. Nuclear electricity can be used to provide the energy required for on-farm methanol production.

17. The Ontario government must remove impediments to practical use of wind generated electricity. In Ontario these impediments include: lack of central energy storage and an electricity rate structure that is not consistent with behind the meter energy storage. This matter must be resolved by legislative changes and the Ontario Energy Board acting under the direction of the Minister of Energy.

18. The electricity rates must be reconfigured in a manner that moves the global adjustment from kWh to monthly peak kVA.

19. The Ontario government and the Canadian government must remove impediments to implementation of liquid sodium cooled fast neutron reactors..

20. The IESO should do all necessary to extricate itself from long term commitments for purchase of electricity generated by combustion of fossil fuels. The entire electricity load should be met from non-fossil fuel electricity sources to the greatest extent possible at the earliest possible date.

21. A fossil carbon tax should be applied to electricity imports from other jurisdictions.

22. At the root of professional engineering ethics is protection of the public. The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration poses a wide spectrum of risks to the public. One of these risks is an increase in fresh water consumption for agriculture. Another risk is the increasing air conditioning load. Professional engineers should take a firm stand and tell politicians and the general public that fossil fuels are no longer a viable primary energy source.

23. Engineers must convince their clients that investment in fossil fuel infrastructure is no longer viable. In order to do so they must do all necessary to understand the physics of atmospheric thermal runaway.

24. Increasing population is a major cause of increasing demand for energy. All governments must implement effective measures to stabilize and then reduce the world wide human population. If governments fail to promptly deal with this matter, natural forces will cause population reduction via war, famine, floods and disease.

25. All countries should tighten laws and enforcement relating to emission of green house gases.

This web page last updated November 12, 2016.

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